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History of Mumbai (Bombay) City

Gateway of IndiaThe city of Bombay originally consisted of seven islands, namely Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Woman's Island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel, and Matunga-Sion. This group of islands, which have since been joined together by a series of reclamations, formed part of the kingdom of Ashoka, the famous Emperor of India. The islands were incorporated into the Maurya Empire under Emperor Ashoka of Magadha in the third century BCE. The empire's patronage made the islands a centre of Hindu and Buddhist religion and culture. Buddhist monks, scholars, and artists created the artwork, inscriptions, and sculpture of the Kanheri Caves in the mid third century and Mahakali Caves.

After the death of Asoka, Bombay had been taken over by various Hindu rulers until 1343. King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century[24] and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim).He belonged to either the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri in Maharashtra or the Anahilavada dynasty of Gujarat.  He built the first Babulnath temple in the region and introduced many fruit-bearing trees, including coconut palms to the islands. The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest settlers of the city, were brought to Mahim from Patan and other parts of Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev during his reign.Muslim rulers of Gujarat captured the islands in 1348, and they were later governed by the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1534. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Mahim, built in honour the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.Haji Ali Dargah

The Treaty of Bassein between the Portuguese viceroy Nuno da Cunha and Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate placed the islands into Portuguese possession in 1534. Charles II of England received possession of the islands in 1661 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, and leased them to the English East India Company in 1668.The English East India Company took Mumbai on lease from the crown for an annual sum of 10 pounds in gold in the year 1668. They shifted their headquarter from Surat to Mumbai in 1687. Soon, they started calling Mumbai as 'Bombay ' cloased to its Portuguese name 'Bom Baia' . Kolis, the original fisher-folk inhabitants of Mumbai used to call 'Mumba' after Mumbadevi, the Hindu goddess. Bombay’s fort was completed in the 1720s. Completed in 1784, the Hornby Vellard was the first of the engineering projects aimed at joining the seven islands. William Hornby, then Governor of Bombay, initiated the project in 1782 despite opposition from the directors of the East India Company. The cost of the vellard was estimated at Rs. 100,000.

From 1817 the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects merging the seven islands into one single mass of around 435 km² by 1845.  During the mid-18th century, the city emerged as an important trading town, with maritime trade contacts with Mecca and Basra. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. The first railway line of India between Victoria Terminus and Thana was inaugurated on 16th April 1853. The Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) and the Bombay Baroda and Central India (BB&CI) Railway were started in 1860 and a regular service of steamers on the west coast was commenced in 1869. After the Sepoy Mutiny or the First War of Independence, the East India Company was accused of mismanagement and the islands of Bombay were reverted to the British Crown.

The city’s economy got a major boost during the American Civil War, (1861-1865) with the city becoming the world’s chief cotton market. In 1869, the opening up of the Suez Canal, shortened the time between the city and Europe and developed into a major port. Many buildings such as the Victoria Terminus, the General Post Office, Municipal Corporation, the Prince of Wales Museum, Rajabai Tower and Bombay University, Elphinstone College and the Cawasji Jehangir Hall, the Crawford Market, the Old Secretariat (Old Customs House) and the Public Works Department (PWD) Building were constructed in the later half of the 19th century. The Gateway of India was built to commemorate the visit of king George V and Queen Mary for the Darbar at Delhi in 1911.

Kanheri CavesThe city became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century and was the epicentre of the Rowlatt Satyagraha of 1919 and Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946. The Partition of Bengal in 1905 initiated the Swadeshi movement, which led to the boycotting of British goods in India. On 22 July 1908, Lokmanya Tilak, the principal advocate of the Swadeshi movement in Mumbai, was sentenced to six years rigorous imprisonment, on the charge of writing inflammatory articles against the Government in his newspaper Kesari. The arrest led to huge scale protests across the city.Historic All India Congress Committee session was started on 7th of August 1942 at Gowala Tank Maidan. Mahatma Gandhi gave 'Quit India' call at this session. British arrested the Indian leaders soon afterwards but the momentum of the Quit India movement could not be stopped and led to the final withdrawal of the British on 15 August 1947.

Mumbai  is now the financial capital of India and one of the most populous cities in the world. Mumbai grew into a leading commercial center of British India during the 19th century on the basis of textile mills and overseas trade.

History of Mumbai (Bombay) City

Pune City

Rulers of different dynasties have ruled Pune. Evidence found as copper plates of 758 AD and of 768 AD reveal that the Rashtrakootas ruled this region at that time. The Pune Gazetteer explains the term Pune as Punya - a holy place. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. The Kasba peth in central Pune were constructed in the 5th century. Pune was ruled by the Yadava dynasty of Deogiri from the 9th century to 1327 (after the Rashtrakootas).

With the emergence of Chhatrapati Shivaji, who founded the Maratha empire, Pune became known to the Delhi Sultanate. Shivaji, spent his early childhood in Pune at Lal Mahal, a palace built by his father Shahaji, where Shivaji's mother Jijabai lived for a decade. Dadaji Konddev, Shivaji's mentor, developed Pune city. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple herself.

Aurangazeb named Pune as Muhiyabad after the death of Shivaji in 1680. Pune again gained importance during the period of the second Peshwa, Thorale (senior) Bajirao who ruled from 1720 to 1740. The palace of the Peshwas - Shaniwarwada was built during his time. The patronage of the Peshwas resulted in the construction of many temples and bridges in the city, including the Parvati temple and the Ganesh, Sadashiv, Narayan, Rasta and Nana Peths.

British defeated the Marathas in 1818 and established the administration in this region. Pune and Delhi were the only centres of power during this century. Pune was an important center for the social and religious reform movements that were sweeping the country. Many prominent reformers lived here, including Mahadev Govind Ranade, Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde and Jyotirao Phule. The most important political reformer of this era was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who dominated the Indian political scene for six decades.  Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada jail several times, and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942-44, where Kasturba Gandhi, his wife died during that period.

Once the center of power of the Maratha Empire, Pune is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Pune has been recognized as a seat of learning and the Deccan College (1851) led the educational movement in Pune. The Pune-Mumbai rail track and the Khadakwasla Dam were constructed in 1857. Later many colleges were established gradually, the Deccan college, the college of Engineering and the Ferguson college. In 1857, the offices of the Department of Meteorology were shifted from Simla to Pune. The first Textile Mill was built in 1893 by Raja Bahadur Motilal Pittie.

After Indian Independence, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defense Academy National Defense Academy at Khadakwasla, National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune also serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army.[4] Industrial developments started around 1950-60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri, and Parvati.[5] Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector. Pune was referred at that time as “Pensioners’ Paradise” since many government officers, civil engineers, and Army personnel preferred to settle down in Pune after their retirement.

In July 1961, Panshet dam broke and its waters flooded the city, destroying most of the older sections, giving a chance for modern town planning concepts to be put into use. This unfortunate incident however led constructive developments in the city, and the economy of the city witnessed a boom in construction and manufacturing sectors. By 1966, the City had expanded in all directions.

After 1970, Pune emerged as the leading engineering city of the country with Telco, Bajaj, Kinetic, Bharat Forge, Alfa Laval, Atlas Copco, Sandvik and Thermax expanding their infrastructure. By this time the city had gained the reputation of being the ‘Oxford of the East’ due to a large number of educational institutes. In 1990 Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing begin to take root in and around the city. In 2001, work of the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway was completed which is a huge accomplishment for the country.

In 2000, Pune saw huge development in the Information Technology sector, and IT Parks formed in Aundh, Hinjewadi and Nagar road. By 2005 Pune had become a major software hub. The year 2008 saw huge development near the Chakan and Talegaon region as Multinational Corporations (MNCs) like General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up facilities near Pune. Additionally, in 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the north-west region of the city and added a few Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) buses on Pune's road.

Pune City

Bengaluru (Bangalore) – The Garden City of India

‘Namma Bengaluru’ (Our Bangalore), as the residents of this burgeoning city proudly proclaim, is situated in southern India and is the capital of the state of Karnataka. Historically known as the Garden City for its many beautiful gardens, today, Bangalore is the main hub for India’s IT sector and thus called the Silicon Valley of India. It is located on the southern part of the Deccan Plateau and is home to many well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defense organizations are also located in the city.

Bengaluru’s known and documented history is over 1000 years old. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription. In this inscription "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 AD. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 AD and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).

There is another popular legend about the origins of Bangalore (Anglicized version of Bengaluru). It is believed that the 11th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "Benda-kaal-uru" (meaning "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".

After the fall of the Western Ganga dynasty, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas in 1024 AD, and was which later passed on to the Chalukya-Cholas in 1070 AD. In 1116 AD, the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I. He built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537 AD. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. Myth says that the city would befall great calamity if it extended beyond these four towers. During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" (Auspicious City). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638 AD, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahaji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a Jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji I/Venkoji, son of Shahaji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for Rs. 300,000 rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore.

Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis in March 1791 and became the center for British resistance against Tippu Sultan. After Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of Bangalore to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh.

Bangalore is a highly cosmopolitan city today. It is the third most populous city in India. Kannada is widely spoken along with other languages like Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, Marathi, Konkani and English. While Udupi and Karnataka cuisine like idli, dosa, vada, bisibele bhath, uppittu, ragi troti are traditionally popluar, other types of cuisines are also gaining popularity. Dasara, a traditional celebration of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigor. Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. The city is host to a number of prestigious educational institutions like Indian Institute of Science (IISC), National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), National Institute of Design (NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B). The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Healthand Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS).

There are many tourist attractions in the city of Bengaluru. Some of the important ones are Vidhana Soudha, Vishveshwaraya Industrial & Technological museum, Lal Bagh, Cubbon park, Bangalore Palace, Nandi temple. Bannerghatta National Park situated 22 km south of Bangalore and Nandi Hills are also major tourist attractions.

Bangalore has blossomed into a major economic and cultural hub and is the second fastest growing major metropolis in India.

Bengaluru (Bangalore) – The Garden City of India

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