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Lodhi Dynasty

Lodhi GardensLodhi Dynasty was a Pashtun dynasty that was the last dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodhi ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.
It was during the time of Lodhi Dynasty in Delhi, the first Portuguese Armada under Vasco da Gama landed in India.
Bahlul Lodhi
He was the first king and the founder of the Lodhi dynasty, with a view to restoring the Delhi Sultanate its past glory, he conquered many territories including the powerful kingdom of Jaunpur. Buhlul Khan extended his territories over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. He appointed his eldest son Barbak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur in 1486. Buhlul Khan was confused as to who should succeed him among his sons Barbak Shah and Nizam Shah and grandson Azam-i-Humayun.
Sikandar Lodi
Nizam Shah(r.1489–1517), the second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on July 17, 1489 and took up the title Sikandar Shah. He was nominated by his father to succeed him and was crowned sultan on July 15, 1489. He founded a new town in 1504 (where now the modern city of Agra stands) to control the chiefs of Etawab, Biyana, Koli, Gwalior and Dholapur.  He was a poet of repute and composed under the pen-name of Gulruk. He was also patron of learning and ordered Sanskrit work in medicine to be translated into Persian.
Ibrahim Lodi
Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodhi (1489–1526), the youngest son of Sikandar, was the last Lodhi Sultan of Delhi. Sultan Ibrahim (r.1517–26) was a fearless military leader and kept out the opposition for almost a decade. He was engaged in warfare with the Afghans and the Mughals for most of his reign and died trying to keep the Lodhi Dynasty from annihilation. Sultan Ibrahim was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.This marked the end of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughal Empire in India led by Babur (r. 1526–1530).
Fall of the Empire
By the time Ibrahim ascended the throne, the political structure in the Lodhi Dynasty had dissolved due to abandoned trade routes and the depleted treasury.
Another problem Ibrahim had when trying to ascend the throne as the next Lodhi emperor was the resistance from a faction of the nobility. They split the Lodhi empire and gave Ibrahim’s older brother, Jalaluddin the area in the east at Jaunpur and gave Ibrahim the area in the west, Delhi.  Sultan Ibrahim being the military man that he was, gathered enough military support and killed his brother. The Afghan nobles tended to be loyal to the Governor of Bihar, Dariya Khan because they wanted him to rule Delhi, not Sultan Ibrahim.Many factions tried to take over the Lodhi throne and this was extremely common during Sultan Ibrahim’s time. Due to the lack of this law of succession, Ibrahim was forced to put down a great deal of these ambitious men. His own uncle, Alam Khan, working off his own ambitions, betrayed Ibrahim because he wanted to rule Delhi.  Alam Kahn decided to place his loyalty in the Mughal emperor, Babur.
Babur claimed to be the true and rightful Monarch of the lands of the Lodhi dynasty. He believed himself the rightful heir to the throne of Timur, and it was Timur who had originally left Khizr Khan in charge of his vassal in the Punjab, who became the leader, or Sultan, of the Delhi Sultanate, founding the Sayyid dynasty. The Sayyid dynasty, however, had been ousted by Ibrahim Lodhi, a Ghilzai Afghan, and Babur wanted it returned to the Timurids.
Not only was Ibrahim threatened by his uncle, Alam Khan, who joined forces with Babur, but he was also threatened by the Rajput leader, Rana Sanga of Mewar (1509–1526). Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab also spoke with Babur about Sultan Ibrahim. Khan pledged his allegiance to Babur as well. Ibrahim Khan Lodhi was easily threatened because his region was surrounded by several other dynasties and territories.
After being assured of the cooperation of Alam Khan (Ibrahim’s uncle) and Daulat Khan,Governor of the Punjab, Babur gathered his army. Upon entering the Punjab plains, Babur's chief allies, namely Langar Khan Niazi advised Babur to engage the powerful Janjua Rajputs to join his conquest. The tribe's rebellious stance to the throne of Delhi was well known. Upon meeting their chiefs, Malik Hast (Asad) and Raja Sanghar Khan, Babur made mention of the Janjua's popularity as traditional rulers of their kingdom and their ancestral support for his patriarch Amir Timur during his conquest of Hind. Babur aided them in defeating their enemies, the Gakhars in 1521, thus cementing their alliance. Babur employed them as Generals in his campaign for Delhi, the conquest of Rana Sanga and the conquest of India.
Babur wanted to fight Sultan Ibrahim because he wanted Sultan Ibrahim’s power and territory. Babur and his army of 24,000 men marched to the battlefield armed with muskets and artillery. Sultan Ibrahim prepared to fight by gathering 100,000 men (well armed but with no guns) and 1,000 elephants. This is known as the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim died in the Battle of Panipat, where Babur's artillery and the desertion of many of Lodi's soldiers led to his downfall, despite superior troop numbers. After his death,  Babur named himself emperor over Sultan Ibrahim’s territory, Sultan Ibrahim’s death lead to the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India. He was the last emperor of the Lodi Dynasty. What was left of his empire was absorbed into the new Mughal Empire.


Lodhi Dynasty